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Electrical Engineering

Safe Handling, Operation and Maintenance of Electrical Equipment in Hazardous Areas and Classification


Preventing the unintentional ignition of explosive atmospheres is a critical safety and economic aspect of all petroleum and chemical plant operations. The course focuses on how to identify and quantify the hazardous areas, how to Select appropriate electrical equipment and instruments for those areas and how to recognize the different methods of protection and how they work. It also gives a detailed explanation on how to install, inspect and maintain the certified equipment


By the end of this course participants will:

  • Provide a clear understanding of hazardous area current custom and practice with particular respect to the following:
  • Defining the hazard, classifying hazard materials, understanding the nature of the risk and the necessity to eliminate sources of ignition
  • The relationship between area classification and the various different types of Ex apparatus
  • The relationship between electrical equipment and gas groups and temperature classes
  • The installation and maintenance of the different types of equipment i.e. flameproof, increased safety, intrinsic safety, etc
  • The need for, and typical approach to, electrical equipment inspection
  • The documentation of the hazardous area

Target Audience
  • Safety practitioner
  • Electrical engineer
  • Instrumentation engineers
  • Technicians

Electrical Engineering Outline

The course covers the following topics:

Introduction and History

  • A brief history of Industrial fires and explosions
  • Materials
  • Understanding the important characteristics of hazardous materials and how they behave when they are ignited. Looking at the data tables and seeing how, Flashpoint, boiling point, etc. influence our approach to the materials
  • Area Classification
  • A look at the techniques and the procedures that result in the formal allocations of zones zero, one and two
  • Sources of Hazard, duration of release, the extent of zones, calculations, nature of the hazard and release characteristics

Area Classification Exercise

  • Apparatus Groups and Temperature Classes
  • How apparatus and hazard materials are matched together in terms of ignition energies, flame transmission characteristics and ignition temperatures. How groups and T Classes have changed over the years and from country to country and where to find the information to make comparisons
  • Source of Ignition
  • A look at some of the possible sources of ignition, e.g. static electricity, light metal thermite reactions, friction etc., which can occur in hazardous areas. Also consider some of the steps which can be taken to eliminate them
  • Methods of Protection
  • Considering the recognized methods of protection. The fundamental concept in each case and the zones in which they may be employed
  • Flameproof
  • Intrinsic Safety
  • Increased Safety
  • Pressurized
  • A written exercise in which the relationship between zones, Apparatus groups, temperature classes and certifies electrical equipment is examined
  • Considering in depth the concept of Flameproof protection, how it works, how it must be installed, how it must be inspected and maintained. Looking at weatherproofing, corrosion, gaps, fasteners, etc

Equipment Inspection

  • Examining samples and answering questions about them
  • Intrinsic Safety
  • As for flameproof, an in-depth look at the subject considering minimum ignition energies, associated apparatus and systems, simple apparatus, IS clean earth, floating systems, system matching, etc
  • Intrinsic Safety Installation
  • Segregation of cables, screens and armor, earthing and bonding, induction and invasion, creep age and clearance etc
  • Increased Safety
  • An in-depth look at this concept of protection making comparisons with flameproof, and stressing the vital importance of correct installation. Also looking at weatherproofing IP rating, CTI, stoppers and bolts, derating etc.
  • Equipment Inspection Exercise Session 2

Pressurized Apparatus

  • A close examination of this method of protection, what it can be applied to, when certification is possible and how to maintain it. Where pressurized rooms fit in and how uncertified pressurized enclosures may be used in zone 2
  • A thorough examination of type N considering non-sparking, enclosed break, energy limitation, and restricted breathing concepts. Also making comparisons with the concepts of protection already covered in detail
  • The Less Common Types of Protection
  • Labels, Marking and Certificates
  • A look at the codings, certificate numbers and other essential markings on labels and certificates. Including a paper exercise to identify equipment and assess its suitability for given environment

Installation, Inspection and Maintenance

  • Considering the guidance of National codes of practice in terms of wiring and cabling, identification, isolation, inspections and maintenance. Examining inspection schedules and referring back to the concepts of protection to ensure that the attendees are comfortable with the inspection requirements for all types of equipment. Prioritizing repairs, i.e. which failures are immediately life threatening and which could become so in time
  • Cable entries
  • Considering cable and conduit entries to all types of enclosures and protection concepts. Also looking at adapters and reducers, plugs and correct selection in each circumstance
  • Equipment Inspection Exercise Final session
  • Legislation
  • What the Law has to say, standards, certificates, codes, European directives, the HSE and how it all ties together
  • Administration and Record Keeping
  • Considering the records that should be kept by a company in order to manage a hazardous area installation
  • General Discussion: Any outstanding questions


Ref Location From To Cost
EE11 Kuwait 20-9-2020 24-9-2020
HSE18 Kuwait 13-12-2020 17-12-2020